What are the documents used for system development?

The good old waterfall model

If you work in software development, you have probably heard about the waterfall project management methodology (or waterfall model), even if you’ve never used it. In general, the waterfall model is a sequential, linear process of project management that divides software development into pre-defined phases. waterfall.png Waterfall is considered a “traditional” and strict approach, proper planning is a must, and there must be a clear picture of what the final product. Everything must be carefully documented and team members will refer to the documentation throughout the process.

The importance of documentation in system development

In system development process, the time required to create document is not small. But good documentation can provide many benefits:

  • Clarify goals and requirements
  • Ensure that developers and stakeholders are headed in the same direction
  • Keep track of all aspects of the system and improve the quality of the product.
  • Assist new user/stakeholder/developer
  • Maintenance is easier

Documents in Software development

In this post, I will present a list of documents you can see in a project using waterfall model and their purposes. There are a few points I want to make:

  1. I don’t have much experience with other management methodologies like Agile or Scrum, so I will limit it to waterfall model.
  2. The documents below are frequently used at Japanese companies (where document management is crucial), so your experience could be different.
  3. Different companies have different document management systems/styles, for example, customer may require screen design at requirements phase, or several documents can be merged together.
  4. The English names are roughly translated, for example, 業務 does not mean “business” only, but “business operation”, “business affairs” in general.

For the sake of completeness, I will also include business related document (mostly appeared in the planning phase), even though developer will rarely see them.

Here is the list

Phase Document
Business 現状業務の業務フロー図 (AsIs) Current business flow diagram (AsIs)
システム化後の業務フロー図 (ToBe) Business flow after systemization diagram (ToBe)
業務機能一覧 List of business functions
システム化業務一覧 List of systemization business
システム化業務説明 Systematization business explanation
業務機能構成表 Business function structure table
ビジネスプロセス関連図 Business process relationship diagram
外部システム関連図 External system relationship diagram
業務処理定義書 Business process definition
システム開発地図 System development map
Requirements Definition 要件定義書 Requirements definition
機能一覧 List of Functions
機能定義書 Function definition
画面遷移図 Screen transition diagram
画面一覧 Screen list
画面イメージと項目説明 Screen image and item description
画面アクション明細 Screen action details
帳票一覧 Form list
帳票イメージと項目説明 Form image and item description
バッチ処理一覧 Batch processing list
バッチ機能概要 Batch function overview
バッチジョブフロー Batch job flow
外部インタフェース一覧 List of external interfaces
外部インタフェース項目定義 External interface item definition
外部インタフェース処理説明 External interface processing explanation
データモデル定義書 Data model definition
データレイアウト概要 Data layout overview
非機能要件の定義 Definition of non-functional requirements
Basic Design 基本設計書 Basic design document
システム構成図 System Configuration
ハードウェア構成図 Hardware configuration diagram
ソフトウェア構成図 Software configuration diagram
ネットワーク構成図 Network configuration diagram
設計書記述様式 Design document description style
画面設計書 Screen design
画面レイアウト項目定義 Screen layout item definition
帳票設計書 Form design
帳票レイアウト項目定義 Form layout item definition
帳票編集定義 Form edit definition
オンライン処理設計書 Online processing design
バッチ処理フロー Batch processing flow
ジョブネット図 Job net diagram
ジョブ設計書 Job design
外部IF設計書 External interface design
メッセージ設計書 Message design
エンティティ一覧 List of entities
エンティティ定義書 Entity definition
CRUD図 CRUD diagram
データ項目定義書 Data item definition
テーブル一覧 Table list
テーブル設計書 Table design
テーブル定義書 Table definition
テーブル関連図(ER図) Table relationship diagram (ER diagram)
ドメイン一覧/定義 Domain list / definition
コード一覧/定義 Code list / definition
共通処理関数設計 Common processing function design
Detail design 詳細設計書 Detailed design document
画面イベント定義 Screen event definition
画面処理詳細定義 Detailed definition of screen processing
クラス図 Class diagram
シーケンス図 Sequence Diagram
ステータス遷移図 State transition diagram
DB更新項目定義 DB update item definition
バッチ処理設計書 Batch processing design
Test 単体テスト仕様書兼成績書 Unit test specifications and transcripts
結合テスト仕様書兼成績書 Integration test specifications and transcripts
システムテスト仕様書兼成績書 System test specifications and report
運用テスト仕様書兼成績書 Operation test specifications and report


IPA - ドキュメント観点で手戻りを削減